Shaka militarized and centralized the state. As for the ruling Qwabe, they began re-inventing their genealogies to give the impression that Qwabe and Zulu were closely related in the past. With Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize support, Shaka was finally able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe (of the Nxumalo clan). 978-1-107-07532-0 - The Creation of the Zulu Kingdom, 1815 1828: War, Shaka, and the Consolidation of Power Elizabeth A. Eldredge Frontmatter More information. He was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, responsible for re-organizing the Zulu military into a formidable force via a series of wide-reaching and influential reforms.  Different coloured shields distinguished different amabutho within Shaka's army. 1824 European artist's impression of Shaka with a long throwing, A muster and dance of Zulu regiments at Shaka's kraal, as recorded by European visitors to his kingdom, c. 1827, Expansion of power and conflict with Zwide, Shakan methods versus European technology, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmer-Cooper1966 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Newitt, Malyn D.D. Ritter when I was a young boy. , The figure of Shaka still sparks interest among not only the contemporary Zulu but many worldwide who have encountered the tribe and its history. Shaka’s mother returned to her Elangeni where she was shunned. Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some[which?] , Shaka further refined the ibutho military system and, with the Mthethwa empire's support over the next several years, forged alliances with his smaller neighbours to counter the growing threat from Ndwandwe raids from the north. 2:18. Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position. Shaka Zulu is a 1986 South African historical TV drama, mostly set between 1823 and 1828 but with some focus on Shaka's formative years as well. For in the space of twelve years, he organized an immense army of skilled and disciplined warriors, conquering and pacifying a territory larger than Europe. The Zulu line – "a royal house of doubtful pedigree" – was very short in comparison to the Langene, Ndwandwe, Swazi, and Hlubi lines. Book chapter. When Shaka's mother Nandi died for example, the monarch ordered a massive outpouring of grief including mass executions, forbidding the planting of crops or the use of milk, and the killing of all pregnant women and their husbands. In that encounter, Zwide's mother Ntombazi, a Sangoma (Zulu seer or shaman), was killed by Shaka. Those seeking an explanation for Shaka’s brutality may begin with his childhood. , According to Julian Cobbing, the development of the view that Shaka was the monster responsible for the devastation is based on the need of apartheid era historians to justify the apartheid regime's racist policies. Shaka's corpse was dumped by his assassins in an empty grain pit, which was then filled with stones and mud. A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa – the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation. He lived his early years in exile but became strong enough to wrest the crown from his half-brother. His protégé, Shaka, was quickly installed as chief of the small Zulu chiefdom and took over Dingiswayo's Mthwethwa confederacy under new Zulu paramountcy. BlackPast.org is a 501 (c)(3) non-profit organization. His reforms of local society built on existing structures. A monument was built at one alleged site. Omer-Cooper's "The Zulu Aftermath", which advances the traditional Mfecane theory.. The antique dealer in Pietermaritzburg, Natal, R.S.A., from whom I … In his initial days, he served as a warrior under the leadership of Dingiswayo. Senzangakhona kaJama (ca. 1879. He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, but was condemned for the brutality of his reign. Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up by Ron Lock and Peter Quantrill (Greenhill, 2002) The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation by John Laband ... British History Timeline. " Furthermore, Zulus under Shaka sometimes advanced more slowly. The founders of the states which Omer-Cooper called "Zulu-type states," including the Ndebele, the Gasa, the Ngoni, and the Swazi had all been closely associated with Zwide. Shaka developed the iklwa spear and ishla… HISTORY OF SHAKA ZULU . Prior to Shaka, warfare in Southern Africa consisted mainly of tribes throwing spears at one another and ritually challenging warriors from other tribes. Shaka’s birth was considered a sin because his parents were from different clans. 1816 - The Zulu Kingdom was Founded 1824 - British settlers establish Port Natal 1828 - Shaka assassinated by Dingane 1834 - Great Trek and Boer-Zulu war 1838 - Battle of Blood River Battle between the Zulu and the Boer on the Ncome river. Cementing the Realm Shaka set about consolidating his empire, building enormous military barracks in strategic locations and populating them with vast numbers of new recruits. " Others dispute this characterization (see Scholarship section below). , Dingane and Mhlangana, Shaka's half-brothers, appear to have made at least two attempts to assassinate Shaka before they succeeded, with perhaps support from Mpondo elements and some disaffected iziYendane people. He addressed this by allowing them to marry and set up homesteads (which was forbidden during Shaka's rule) and they also received cattle from Dingane. The story that sandals were discarded to toughen the feet of Zulu warriors has been noted in various military accounts such as The Washing of the Spears, Like Lions They Fought, and Anatomy of the Zulu Army. The Zulus rose to prominence during the reign of King Shaka (1818-1828). Shaka Zulu & Julius Caesar battle it out in this episode of Epic Rap Battles Of History. Shaka usurps the Zulu Chiefdom. , As Shaka became more respected by his people, he was able to spread his ideas with greater ease. This "imagining of Shaka" it is held, should be balanced by a sober view of the historical record, and allow greater scope for the contributions of indigenous African discourse. Many said that he spoke with a speech impediment. Nathaniel Isaacs published his Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa in 1836, creating a picture of Shaka as a degenerate and pathological monster, which survives in modified forms to this day. They also argue that Shaka's line was relatively short-lived and receives undue attention, compared to other, longer established lines and rulers in the region. He had a big nose, according to Baleka of the Qwabe, as told by her father. You know nothing, hint guessers. The initial problem Dingane faced was maintaining the loyalty of the Zulu fighting regiments, or amabutho. . Zwide's general Soshangane (of the Shangaan) moved north towards what is now Mozambique to inflict further damage on less resistant foes and take advantage of slaving opportunities, obliging Portuguese traders to give tribute. [clarification needed] To show his gratitude, Shaka permitted European settlers to enter and operate in the Zulu kingdom. This remarkable king, was a contemporary of Napolean, and his achievements rivalled the Emperor's.  He also drilled the troops to carry out encirclement tactics. 1828 - Shaka Zulu is assassinated by his brothers. He reformed the remnants of the Mthethwa and other regional tribes and later defeated Zwide in the Zulu Civil War of 1819–20. The illegitimate son of Senzangakhona, king of the Zulus, Shaka received education and military assistance from the Mthethwa empire and its then leader, Dingiswayo. The ripple effect caused by these mass migrations would become known (though only in the twentieth century) as the Mfecane (annihilation). Zulu kingdom timeline. Shaka Zulu vs Julius Caesar. He set up his main residence at Mmungungundlovo and established his authority over the Zulu kingdom. Shaka claimed his father’s chieftaincy with military assistance from Dingiswayo. 1787-1828), son of Senzangakona, king from 1816 to 1828. It argues that in many ways, the image of Shaka has been "invented" in the modern era according to whatever agenda persons hold. In Qwabe, Shaka may have intervened in an existing succession dispute to help his own choice, Nqetho, into power. Morris nevertheless references a large number of sources, including Stuart, and A. T. Bryant's extensive but uneven "Olden Times in Zululand and Natal", which is based on four decades of exhaustive interviews of tribal sources. J.H. John Wright (history professor at University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg), Julian Cobbing and Dan Wylie (Rhodes University, Grahamstown) are among a number of writers who have modified these stories. How to make a timeline? These numbers are, however, controversial.  Shaka drilled his troops frequently, in forced marches that sometimes covered more than 50 miles (80 km) a day in a fast trot over hot, rocky terrain. In Shaka's time, these cowhide shields were supplied by the king, and they remained the king's property. This combination has been compared to the standardisation implemented by the reorganised Roman legions under Marius. Thunderer-while-sitting, son of Menzi This video is unavailable.  Several other historians of the Zulu, and the Zulu military system, however, affirm the mobility rate of up to 50 miles per day.. Shaka Zulu was founder of the Zulu nation, a born leader and a brilliant general. Implementation was typically blunt. A diversion was created by Mbopa, and Dingane and Mhlangana struck the fatal blows.  Further unquantifiable deaths occurred during mass tribal migrations to escape his armies. , The figure of Shaka thus remains an ambiguous one in African oral tradition, defying simplistic depictions of the Zulu king as a heroic, protean nation builder on one hand, or a depraved monster on the other. Shaka King of the Zulus was a strong influential African leader and military innovator, born in southern Africa in 1787. Shaka Zulu Intro. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he also engaged in a number of battles.. 1828 - Shaka Zulu is assassinated by his brothers. The praise song is one of the most widely used poetic forms in Africa, applying not only to spirits but to men, animals, plants and even towns.. Spurned as an illegitimate son, Shaka spent his childhood in his mother's settlements, where he was initiated into an ibutho lempi (fighting unit), serving as a warrior under Dingiswayo. His teachings greatly influenced the social outlook of the Zulu people. Age grades were responsible for a variety of activities, from guarding the camp, to cattle herding, to certain rituals and ceremonies. Shaka was victorious in battle, although his forces sustained heavy casualties, which included his head military commander, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. Nevertheless, the concept of "light" forces is questionable. 1816-1826 - Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire, creates a formidable fighting force. credit Shaka with initial development of the famous "bull horn" formation. Shaka's hegemony was primarily based on military might, smashing rivals and incorporating scattered remnants into his own army. Shaka Zulu is one of the most famous (or notorious) leaders to have graced Southern Africa in the past few centuries. His role in the Mfecane is highly controversial. The current tendency appears to be to lionise him; popular film and other media have certainly contributed to his appeal. Dingiswayo was impressed by Shaka’s courage and endurance and remained with the Mthethwa until he learned of the death of his father, Senzangakhona, in 1816. Enjoy. Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River. , Another decisive fight eventually took place on the Mhlatuze river, at the confluence with the Mvuzane stream. African & African American Experience. South African historian Dan Wylie has expressed skepticism of the portrayal of Shaka as a pathological monster destroying everything within reach. , The theory of the Mfecane holds that the aggressive expansion of Shaka's armies caused a brutal chain reaction across the southern areas of the continent, as dispossessed tribe after tribe turned on their neighbours in a deadly cycle of fight and conquest. You decide? The Zulu become a powerful nation. Much controversy still surrounds the character, methods and activities of the Zulu king. Instead of hypothesizing that they all chose to imitate Shaka, it is easier to imagine that he modeled his state on theirs. 2005). At the begining of the 19th century, Shaka had created the most powerful kingdom on the southern part of the continent of Afica. Dress code: Ladies and gents are expected to look their best (No sportswear or hoodies) I.D: Photo I.D Required for all Tables Packages Available: The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. Clans driven westwards into the Drakensberg mountain range were left without livestock or the leisure to plant crops, and turned to desperate, grisly means of survival in … Under Shaka (1819-1828), the Zulu territory expanded phenomenally. This Zulu guy was busy bragging about how Shaka was a great warrior and that Sotho and Pedi Kings were cowards instead of fighting they hid in the mountains.  Thus Shaka became Chief of the Zulu clan, although he remained a vassal of the Mthethwa empire until Dingiswayo's death in battle a year later at the hands of Zwide, powerful chief of the Ndwandwe (Nxumalo) nation. Dingane assumed control of the Empire which lasted another half century before finally being crushed by the British Army. In 1826 the Zulu led by Shaka defeat the nation of Ndwandwe and adds much land to the Zulu kingdom furthering their control of south Africa. They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy. There is an anecdote that Shaka joked with one of his friends, Magaye, that he could not kill Magaye because he would be laughed at. His father was the chief of the Zulus and his mother, Nandi, was the daughter of the chief of a nearby clan. Shaka Zulu vs Julius Caesaris the fifty-sixth installment of Epic Rap Battles of History and the eleventh episode of Season 4. The Gaza Empire. Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. McK. He is Shaka the unshakeable, Shaka (Tshaka, Tchaka or Chaka; sometimes referred to as Shaka Zulu; was the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom. Glossary Only terms used frequently are included in this glossary. Timeline. Massacres begin as a result of her death. The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. The profile and history of Tshaka King of the Zulu (a.k.a Chaka, Shaka), he was one of the greatest leaders of his time. Upon reaching manhood he deserted the Elangeni and became affiliated with the Mthethwa clan.  Some of these practices are shown below. Sigujana's reign was short, however, as Dingiswayo, anxious to confirm his authority, lent Shaka a regiment so that he was able to put Sigujana to death, launching a relatively bloodless coup that was substantially accepted by the Zulu. Malcolm in 1950. Shaka kaSenzangakhona, most commonly known as Shaka Zulu, is best known for bringing together different factions of the Zulu community, building both a state and a powerful sense of identity. Timeline. The exact location is unknown. Confirmation of such accounts can also be seen in modern archaeology of the village of Lepalong, an entire settlement built underground to shelter remnants of the Kwena people from 1827 to 1836 against the tide of disruption that engulfed the region during Shakan times.. A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best. 1757-1816), son of Jama, chief of the Zulu clan from 1781 to 1816. Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele, Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. He is the long-strided pursuer, son of Ndaba,  He was tall and his skin tone was dark brown. Shaka had made enough enemies among his own people to hasten his demise. He was sucessful in uniting all the ethnic groups in southern Africa against the despicable vestiges of colonialism. African Military Leader. 1787, born near Melmoth in the KwaZulu-Natal Province 1803, Shaka is sent to be a warrior for Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa clan 1816, Shaka assumes leadership as Chief of the Zulu after the death of Senzangakona 1817, the “Mfecane” (annihilation) begins. I have chosen an armband worn by Shaka Zulu's leading warriors, a reminder of one of Africa's high points. Shaka's reign coincided with the start of the Mfecane ("Upheaval" or "Crushing"), a period of devastating warfare and chaos in southern Africa between 1815 and about 1840 that depopulated the region. In 1828, Shaka was assassinated by his half brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. A great part of Shaka's life and rule has been referenced in Henry rider haggard's Fiction novel Nada the Lily. Some older histories have doubted the military and social innovations customarily attributed to Shaka, denying them outright, or attributing them variously to European influences. Are the points and dates accurate? According to Donald Morris, Shaka ordered that no crops should be planted during the following year of mourning, no milk (the basis of the Zulu diet at the time) was to be used, and any woman who became pregnant was to be killed along with her husband. According to popular belief, Shaka was an illegitimate child of Senzangakhona kaJama, a minor Zulu chief, and Nandi. Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. July 1787 – 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu (Zulu pronunciation: [ˈʃaːɠa]), was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828. In 1879 the Anglo-Zulu war was at its height and there were many battles. Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. The Zulu Clan In the 1820's, during a period of social unrest and warfare, the Zulu clan, a Bantu people, rose to political prominence under the great King Shaka in present-day South Africa. It is said that Shaka was conceived when the two engaged in uku-hlobonga, a form of sexual foreplay without penetrative sex that was allowed to unmarried couples. and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds., (New York: Oxford University Press, 1828, September 22, Shaka is assassinated by Mbopa, and two of Shaka’s half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. It seems much more likely that Shaka, seeking to build the power of a previously insignificant chiefdom, drew on an existing heritage of statecraft known to his immediate neighbors. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents – especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide (d. 1822). , Shaka was able to form an alliance with the leaderless Mthethwa clan and was able to establish himself amongst the Qwabe, after Phakathwayo was overthrown with relative ease. He is the bird that preys on other birds, At least 7,000 people who were deemed to be insufficiently grief-stricken were executed, although the killing was not restricted to humans: cows were slaughtered so that their calves would know what losing a mother felt like. Alyssavu. A frontal assault by their opponents failed to dislodge them, and Shaka sealed the victory by sending his reserve forces in a sweep around the hill to attack the enemy's rear. Kwame Anthony Appiah, The latest Tweets from Shaka Zulu (@AHoeGonBeAHoe): "Just posted a video https://t.co/xUlrBIuVz2" Who pursued the sun and the moon. African American History: Research Guides & Websites, Global African History: Research Guides & Websites, African Americans and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Alma Stephenson Dever Page on Afro-britons, With Pride: Uplifting LGBTQ History On Blackpast, Preserving Martin Luther King County’s African American History, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Envoys, Diplomatic Ministers, & Ambassadors, African American Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals, Religious Organizations - Quakers (Society of Friends), Education - Historically Black Colleges (HBCU). Ultimately, Shaka's end came from internal rather than external enemies. 1000 - For thousands of years hunter-gatherers called the San people inhabit South Africa. The "loins" would be committed wherever the enemy impi threatened to break out of the, Zulu king Shaka is referenced in Jamaican, Shaka has been featured as a playable leader for the Zulu civilization in all six, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 11:35. Want to help ERB? Shaka Zulu Collection. Those who objected to going without sandals were simply killed. I count myself fortunate to have met the author of the book Shaka Zulu, Mr E.A. These and other sources such as A.T. Bryant gives us a more Zulu-centred picture. Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to have come out of Africa.. ... 1816 - Shaka Zulu forms the Zulu Kingdom. He ruled at one of first recorded towns known as Bulawayo Occupation: King of the Zulu Reign: 1816 - 1828 Born: 1787 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Died: 1828 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Best known for: Uniting many tribes into the Zulu Kingdom Biography: Growing Up Shaka was born into the small South African clan of the Zulus in 1787. Boys and girls aged six and over joined Shaka's force as apprentice warriors (udibi) and served as carriers of rations, supplies like cooking pots and sleeping mats, and extra weapons until they joined the main ranks. Oral sources record that in this period of devastation, a singular Zulu, a man named Gala, eventually stood up to Shaka and objected to these measures, pointing out that Nandi was not the first person to die in Zululand. Timelines; Archives; Publications; go. Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., (New York: Scribner’s, 2008); September 1828 in KwaDukuza, beides im heutigen Südafrika; auch Shaka Zulu, Shaka ka Senzangakhona, d. h. Shaka, Sohn des Senzangakhona) war ein König der Zulu. In 1810 he created the Aniklwa which became the primary Zulu weapon which helped them win more and conquer more. The regimental system clearly built on existing tribal cultural elements that could be adapted and shaped to fit an expansionist agenda.. It came relatively quickly after the death of his mother Nandi in October 1827, and the devastation caused by Shaka's subsequent erratic behavior. An epic tale with thousands of extras, it was … South Africa Timeline BCE. When Dingiswayo was murdered by Zwide, Shaka sought to avenge his death. Book chapter. best ring outfit of 2015 fernando guerrero as shaka zulu! South Africa Timeline BCE. He was ultimately assassinated by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana. ", Laband also dismissed the idea of a 50 miles (80 km) march in a single day as ridiculous. Shaka (c.1787-c. 22 September 1828) was the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom. Most historians[who?] 1828: On a walk through the fields of Africa, Shaka Zulu is ambushed by his brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana, intent on stabbing him. Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. Shaka Zulu's Main Events. After organizing the Zulu government, he transformed the Zulu army and led it into battle against neighboring tribes. Age-grade groupings of various sorts were common in the Bantu culture of the day, and indeed are still important in much of Africa. In his initial days, he served as a warrior under the leadership of Dingiswayo. Shaka, Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa’s Zulu Empire. Shaka Zulu (1787-1828) Home - Book Shop - Wars - Battles - Biographies - Timeline - Weapons - Blog - Full Index - Subjects - Concepts - Country - Documents - Pictures & Maps . Seinem Erfol… The Zulu tribe soon developed a warrior outlook, which Shaka turned to his advantage.. For in the space of twelve years, he organized an immense army of skilled and disciplined warriors, conquering and pacifying a territory larger than Europe. In 1827 at the height of his power, his mother, Nandi, died. The Zulu Kingdom itself had an estimated population of a mere 1500 people within a territory of only 10 squared miles. For the ease of readers unaccustomed to … I again reiterate that I am not an historian but merely relate stories that I had heard as a child and stories I have heard and read about during the course of my life. Historian Donald Morris states that Shaka's first major battle against Zwide, of the Ndwandwe, was the Battle of Gqokli Hill, on the Mfolozi river. He argues that attempts to distort his life and image have been systematic— beginning with the first European visitors to his kingdom. Located in the Heart of Camden, the iconic Shaka Zulu is the most unique party setting for all you instagrammers we’ll be opening our doors from 10pm every week and table bookings are recommended. In 1827, at the height of his power, Shaka could order into the field of battle over 50,000 warriors and controlled most of the area that is now the modern state of South Africa.  Other scholars acknowledge distortion of the historical record by apartheid supporters and shady European traders seeking to cover their tracks, but dispute the revisionist approach, noting that stories of cannibalism, raiding, burning of villages, or mass slaughter were not developed out of thin air but based on the clearly documented accounts of hundreds of black victims and refugees. General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J.D.
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