Acute toxicity of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea to finfish, shellfish, and zooplankton AME 80:209-222 | Full text in pdf format. The highest concentrations occurred between the Pajaro River and Capitola Beach. Mass stranding of marine birds caused by a surfactant-producing red tide. akashiwo" and "H. inlandica" have been recognized as two species of "Heterosigma". In: E.P. Change in Reports of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 1970 . It is also susceptible to parasitic dinoflagellates such as Amoebophrya (Coats & Park 2002), which may represent an unexplored means of population control in the IRL. Our results … Hyeong-Kyu Kwon, Seok-Jin Oh, Growth Response of the Dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Relation to Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance, and its Advantage in Species Succession, Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment and … The initial cell densities for C. geminatum and A. sanguinea were 500 cells mL −1. Tang YZ, Gobler CJ. Sci. Akashiwo sanguinea cells were inoculated in 250 mL flasks containing 85 mL f/2 medium without silicate (Guillard 1975) to a final concentration of 5000 cells mL −1 every 2 weeks. The 0.22-µm filters with bacterial cells were then stored at … Ciguatoxigenic Dinoflagellates from the Caribbean Sea. A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom. A. sanguinea toxicity differed among the Chinese strains, and the hemolytic activity of 1 Chinese strain was 3‑fold greater than that of the US strain. Noctiluca? Blooms of Akashiwo sanguinea frequently break out around the world, causing huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry and seriously damaging coastal ecosystems. Akashiwo sanguinea is a harmful—but not toxic—species that causes blooms around the world. Under some culture conditions, a mucoid cyst may be formed (Steidinger & Tangen 1997). There were no consistent sterol profiles that characterized the genus Amoebophyra. (, Tillmann, U., Alpermann, T., John, U. and Cembella, A. 2009. Unless otherwise noted, all images and text by PE HargravesEditing and page maintenance by LH Sweat Karlodinium veneficum is a cosmopolitan, toxic, and harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate, of which the mixotrophy has been suggested to be a key factor in the formation and maintaining of HABs and thus deserves more intensive explorations. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com, This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (, Long-term changes of ichthyoplankton communities in an Iberian estuary are driven by varying hydrodynamic conditions, Scyphozoan jellyfish (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from Amazon coast: distribution, temporal variation and length–weight relationship, The sediment akinete bank links past and future blooms of Nostocales in a shallow lake, Thermal performance of marine diatoms under contrasting nitrate availability, Cladoceran body size distributions along temperature and trophic gradients in the conterminous USA, https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. akashiwo (Japanese)= red tide. Large-scale bloom of Akashiwo sanguinea in the Northern California current system in 2009 Angelicque b E. Whitea,*, Katie S. Watkins-Brandta, S. Morgaine McKibbena, A. MichelleWood ,MatthewHunterc,ZachForsterd,XiuningDu e,f,WilliamT.Peterson a College b of Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 104 CEOAS Admin, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA Domoic Acid Toxicity Prediction (for cellular DA) shows the probability that the domoic acid concentration per Pseudo-nitzschia (i.e. et J. J. Lee) Coats, along with their Amoebophyra parasites. Certain species of mixotrophic dinoflagellates can be affected by light intensity and nutrient conditions . In China, the ﬁrst In China, the ﬁrst A. sanguinea bloom was recorded in Yantai in 1998. Effects of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. ml−1) significantly inhibited the growth of A. sanguinea, and the inhibitory effects varied among strains. Reports of toxicity in A. sanguinea are mostly anecdotal and based on its abundance in natural populations in which mortality has occurred. (, Prince, E. K., Myers, T. L. and Kubanek, J. (1984). 2015-04-08 10:59:52 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:46:58 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:44:42 Susanne Busch - Added media: Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2014-09-26 12:25:32 Janina Kownacka - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_5.jpg In the literature, the species currently known as A. sanguinea is treated under several names, some of which reﬂect renaming of the species, others are synonyms, including most recently Gymnodinium sanguineum Researchers found that the blooms are most common during mid to late summer, indicating that A. sanguinea does well in the warmer temperatures and when upwelling is sporadic and stratified conditions remain. ... What we do get is foam from kelp, and foam from a dinoflagellate called Akashiwo sanguinea. Ragelis (Ed.) It is nearly always found in coastal and estuarine locations. Toxicity: No Bloom: Yes (Daugbjerg et al. This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Akashiwo. This is one of the largest dinoflagellates, with a length about 40-80 µm and a width of 30-50 µm. Z., Qin, J. L., Duan, S. S. and Gobler, C. J. 6. They possess a trailing flagellum, which can often be longer than the cell itself.Their patterns of movement tend to be very consistent, constantly moving utili… This foam acts like a detergent, stripping away seabirds’ water resistance and causing them to become wet and hypothermic. 1993. Toxicity. (, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Most research was done in the field. Akashiwo sanguinea is also present in Long Island Sound and has been attributed to invertebrate, fish, and seabird mortality events around the world. 23. Akashiwo sanguinea (formerly Gymnodinium sanguineum, Gynodinium nelsonii, Gymnodinium splendens) is a dinoflagellate common to coastal marine and estuarine waters where it forms blooms. The bacterial C degradation genes (AceA-isocitrate lyase, pectinase and phenol oxidase) showed significantly positive correlations with A. sanguinea … ACS Symposium Series 262, American Chemical Society. J. Phycol. This species lives as single cells. 34 . Aquat. Although these blooms have been associated with harmful effects to fish and shellfish, the mechanism for toxicity has scantly been examined up tell now and as such is still unknown. Spatial and temporal aspects of mixotrophy in Chesapeake Bay dinoflagellates. Toxicity was enhanced by increased nutrient supply, suggesting that this species … However, toxicity of mice was reported by Tindall et al. (, Tang, Y. Effect of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Karlodinium & Pfiesteria Gonyaulax spinifera . Hulburt, E. 1957. A. sanguinea can produce mycosporine -like amino acids as water-soluble, surface-active substance ( surfactant) reduces the surface tension of the water. The allelopathic and toxic potencies among K. veneficum strains were not parallel, which indicates that the allelochemicals and fish-killing toxins of K. veneficum may be different chemicals, or the same responsible chemicals functioned in different modes to algae and animals. The cell has a large number of elongate yellow or brown chloroplasts that radiate from the cell center (Figures 2, 3). There are nucleotide sequence data for over four dozen samples identified as A. sanguinea at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. The nucleus is just above the cingulum in the epicone, and distinguishable in living cells by appearing as a clear area (Figures 1, 2). These parasites prevent repro- duction of their hosts and kill infected cells on a time scale of days. For questions, comments or contributions, please contact us at: Change History. (, Van Wagoner, R. M., Deeds, J. R., Tatters, A. O., Place, A. R., Tomas, C. R. and Wright, J. L. C. (, Wang, C. C., Yan, T. and Zhou, M. J. No reports were found on the sexual cycle of A. sanguinea. Mar. Akashiwo sanguinea cells retained by 8-µm filters were washed several times with sterilized seawater to remove attached bacteria, and the combined filtrates were filtered through a 0.22-µm membrane filter to concentrate bacterial cells. Qiu X, Yamasaki Y, Shimasaki Y, Gunjikake H, Honda H, Kawaguchi M, Matsubara T, Nagasoe S, Etoh T, Matsui S, Honjo T, Oshima Y., Allelopathy of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo against the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea is mediated via allelochemicals and cell contact , Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 446, 107-118, 2012.01. NIES-1832 : Akashiwo sanguinea (Hirasaka) Hansen & Moestrup : Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Non-axenic Not available; Fragile species to transportation stresses; Read and agree "How to order 4.1" An earlier, very short diversion resulted in an algal bloom dominated by dinoflagellates and included the potentially harmful Akashiwo sanguinea and Cochlodinium fulvescens. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. J. Eukaryot. T Matsubara, S Nagasoe, Y Yamasaki, T Shikata, Y Shimasaki, Y Oshima, ... Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342 (2), 226-230, 2007. how toxic are the algal cells themselves) is at or above 10 picograms per cell (pg/cell). Video. A. sanguinea is found throughout the IRL during most of the year, sometimes exceeding 105 cells per liter, although rare in the Mosquito Lagoon. Antialgal activity of a hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacterium, Harmful algal blooms: Their ecophysiology and general relevance to phytoplankton blooms in the sea, Characteristical life history (resting cyst) provides a mechanism for recurrence and geographic expansion of harmful algal blooms of dinoflagellates: a review, Allelochemical interactions and short-term effects of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium on selected photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists, Structure and relative potency of several karlotoxins from, A preliminary study of the toxicity and mechanism of, The log likelihood radio test (the G-test)—methods and tables for tests of heterogeneity in contingency tables, Molecular identification of a bloom-forming speciesisolated from Sanggou Bay in Shandong Province, Acute toxicity of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming dinoflagellate, Growth inhibition and formation of morphologically abnormal cells of, Feeding by phototrophic red-tide dinoflagellates on the ubiquitous marine diatom, © The Author(s) 2019. 1).The NMS is a shallow estuary with extensive marshes protected from the Atlantic Ocean by a highly dynamic barrier beach with a single connection through Nauset Inlet .Salt Pond is roughly circular, with a surface area of 82,200 m 2, an average depth of 3.4 … These results together suggest that the production of toxins by K. veneficum provides an advantage in proliferation to the species via avoiding predation, but the allelopathic effects may not play an important role in initiating blooms of the species. Salt Pond is a saline pond at the northwestern boundary of the Nauset Marsh system (NMS; Eastham, MA USA; Fig. PLoS ONE 4: e4550. Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, Species specificity and potential roles of, Historic overview of algal blooms in marine and estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia, Mathematical-modeling of allelopathy-biological response to allelochemicals and its interpretation, Pigmentation and morphology of a marine gyrodinium (Dinophyceae) with a major carotenoid different from peridinin and fucoxanthin, Harmful Algae Management and Mitigation Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Singapore), Sterol-specific membrane interactions with the toxins from, Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behavior of the marine planktonic copepod. Hansen et Moestrup, Alexandrium tamarense (M. Lebour) Balech, Alexandrium affine (H. Inoue et Fukuyo) Balech, Gonyaulax polygramma F. Stein, and Gymnodinium instriatum (Freud. (, Xu, N., Wang, M., Tang, Y. Cas Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China, College of Earth And Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Akashiwo sanguinea. (, Poulson, K. L., Sieg, R. D., Prince, E. K. and Kubanek, J. A., Terlizzi, D. E. and Place, A. R. (, Deeds, J. R., Terlizzi, D. E., Adolf, J. E., Stoecker, D. K. and Place, A. R. (, Gobler, C. J., Lobanov, A. V., Tang, Y. Hemolytic Toxicity of Three Important Harmful Microalgae Isolated from Pearl River Estuary. 35 : (, Krock, B., Busch, J. This diversion represented an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the impact of large increases in nutrients derived from human activities on a natural ecosystem. MOCHA project scientists documented the occurrence, spatial extent and ecological consequences of a rare albeit massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in 2009-2010. The trailing flagellum is quite long, often longer than the cell itself (Figure 2). NORSWater@cdc.gov 2 . Because the algicidal compounds in the fermentation broth were relatively complex and algal lysis was the comprehensive result generated by several algicidal … (2007) characterize this species as eurythermal and euryhaline. In general, this species is not considered to be toxic, and no toxicity or harmful activity has been verified in the IRL. Page last updated: 14 June 2011, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. While not toxic, this marine plankton species has the ability to discolor the water and also produce a surfactant foam. 38: 520-528. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 5;6:34645. doi: 10.1038/srep34645. Jessup et al. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 80(3), 209-222. They have a large number of yellow or brown chloroplasts that radiate from the cell center with a nucleus in the middle that is distinguishable by appearing as a clear area. This month, September 2016, there was a large increase in the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Monterey Bay.While not toxic, it has the ability to discolor the water and also produce a surfactant foam. The taxonomy of unarmored Dinophyceae of shallow embayments on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Most of these ultrastructural details are typically not visible in the light microscope, except the large clockwise spiral of the apical groove (not shown here) can rarely be discerned. Sanguinea=Adjective (Latin), blood-red (Stearn 1973), describing the resulting color of the water after a red tide event. Tindall, DR, Dickey, RW, Carlson, RD & G Morey-Gaines. (2009) reported extensive seabird mortality caused by surfactant-like protein exudates derived from A. sanguinea, which coated their feathers and neutralized natural water repellency and insulation. Parasitism of photosynthetic dinoflagellates by three strains of Amoebophrya (Dinophyta): parasite survival, infectivity, generation time, and host specificity. Akashiwo sanguinea is also present in Long Island Sound and has been attributed to invertebrate, fish, and seabird mortality events around the world. All experiments were performed in 10-mL culture tubes for 72 h under the same conditions used for maintaining cultures. 80, 209-222. Introduction . Akashiwo sanguinea is a dinoflagellate that caused a large fish kill along Bolivar Peninsula in September 2007. Daugbjerg, N, Hansen, G, Larsen, J & Ø Moestrup. A toxin has not been identified, however, the type is associated with toxicity. The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for the growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates, Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: a scientific consensus, Formation of harmful algal blooms cannot be explained by allelopathic interactions, Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology, LC-MS/MS detection of karlotoxins reveals new variants in strains of the marine dinoflagellate, A survey of the sterol composition of the marine dinoflagellates, Allelopathy in phytoplankton—biochemical, ecological and evolutionary aspects, Allelopathy, chemical communicatin, and plant defense, Survey for karlotoxin production in 15 species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta), Structure and absolute configuration of karlotoxin-2, an ichthyotoxin from the marine dinoflagellate, Allelopathic compounds of a red tide dinoflagellate have species-specific and context-dependent impacts on phytoplankton, Effects of harmful algal blooms on competitors: allelopathic mechanisms of the red tide dinoflagellate, A dinoflagellate exploits toxins to immobilize prey prior to ingestion.
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