density of rocks

CIM Bull 75(838):127–135, Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. The most problematic minerals are clays, particularly expanding clays (montmorillonite or smectite) capable of containing large and variable amounts of water. Abnormally high pore fluid pressures ("overpressure") can occur because of: The high pore pressure results in an abnormally low differential of effective pressure. Rock density information is needed for the estimation of ore tonnage, and also for determining the amount of contained metal; this is because … Porosities for both shales and sands show the expected porosity loss with increasing depth in the shallow portions. Each rock type shows a range of density values. 3 – Shale and sandstone porosity with depth. The grain density is the density based solely on the solid material, excluding the pore space. Therefore, these numbers translate directly to g/cm 3, or tonnes per cubic meter (t/m 3). This fluid-like layer with a density of about 3.3 g/cm 3. The density will change systematically as composition varies. Method 5.3.1: soils compaction and density tests – determination of the field density of a soil – sand replacement method using a sand-cone pouring apparatus. Salt is of particular interest in sedimentary rocks because it has a low density (2.2 g/cc), but has a fairly high bulk modulus giving it a relatively high seismic velocity (velocity of acoustic signals within the rock). Due to the color of the minerals forming them, the rocks are either light or dark. Specific heats of common rocks 87 13. 65. For example, in the plagioclase series, the density increases as sodium (albite, ρ = 2.61 g/cm3) is replaced by calcium (anorthite, ρ = 2.75 g/cm3). Thermal conductivities of air and water 94 16. Such a situation is seen in Fig. The clay content of a soil has a significant effect on its density. These measurements allow calculation of saturated, dry, and grain density as well as porosity and mineral and pore volume by employing Eqs. Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Density Calculation. In a similar fashion, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log will resolve the hydrogen content. The number of porosity determinations per item ranges from 1 to 2,109. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: = where ρ is the density… Calculate the density of (a) a piece of rock whose mass is 37.42 g and which, when submerged, increases the water level in a graduated cylinder by 13.9 ml; (b) an rock core sample which is a cylinder of mass 25.07 g, radius 0.750 m, and height 5.25 cm. Eaton, B.A. This method requires separating the density component of impedance. The density log measures the bulk density of the coal reservoir and associated rocks (Figure 7.29) (Scholes & Johnston, 1993). Andesite: The specimen shown is about two inches (five centimeters) across and has a porphyritic texture. Given a porosity and specific fluid, density can be easily calculated if the mineral or grain density is known. Therefore, rocks are divided into ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, and felsic. Stuart, C.A. 2[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8], generalized densities as a function of depth for shales are plotted. This activity is part of the On the Cutting Edge Peer Reviewed Teaching Activities collection. We can also calculate the porosity, P = 1 − (ρ bulk /ρ grain). Grain densities for common rock-forming minerals are shown in Table 2. This is a particular problem, because clays are among the most common minerals in sedimentary rocks.

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